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2019年9月21日托福阅读回忆和解析

编辑时间:2019-09-23 09:34:43 信息来源: 杭州环球教育

2019年9月21日托福阅读回忆和解析

环球教育 上海学校

吴申骏 整理点评


综合点评:
上午场考试延续多套题拼盘的出题特点,套题数量有所增加,整体的难度上基本保持不变。文章题材上生物占比比较
多,也有一些天文,艺术类文章。段落长度增加,加试文章依然较难,建议学生利用好 TPO 的题目去夯实自己的阅读
基本功。很多文章是重复近几年考过的文章,特别是 16-19 年的题目,建议考生可以利用机经回忆了解考题背景知识。
环球教育

Passage one 
学科分类:生物-动物

题目
The Origin of Coral Reefs

内容回忆
重复 2016.6.25
本文介绍了珊瑚礁的产生缘由,第一段介绍珊瑚礁的定义与分类描述,第二段提出了环礁的成因-
下沉理论,第三段进一步提出了下沉理论的证据,第四段提出珊瑚礁未来发展的趋势。

参考阅读

An important environment that is more or less totally restricted to the intertropical 
zone is the coral reef. Coral reefs are found where the ocean water temperature is not less 
than 21 °C, where there is a firm substratum, and where the seawater is not rendered too 
dark by excessive amounts of river-borne sediment. They will not grow in very deep water, 
so a platform within 30 to 40 meters of the surface is a necessary prerequisite for their 
development. Their physical structure is dominated by the skeletons of corals, which are 
carnivorous animals living off zooplankton. However, in addition to corals there are 
enormous quantities of algae, some calcareous, which help to build the reefs. The size of 
reefs is variable. Some atolls are very large—Kwajelein in the Marshall Islands of the South 
Pacific is 120 kilometers long and as much as 24 kilometers across-but most are very muchsmaller, and rise only a few meters above the water. The 2,000 kilometer complex of reefs 
known as the Great Barrier Reef, which forms a gigantic natural breakwater off the 
northeast coast of Australia, is by far the greatest coral structure on Earth.


Coral reefs have fascinated scientists for almost 200 years, and some of the most 
pertinent observations of them were made in the 1830s by Charles Darwin on the voyage 
of the Beagle. He recognized that there were three major kinds: fringing reefs, barrier reefs, 
and atolls; and he saw that they were related to each other in a logical and gradational 
sequence. A fringing reef is one that lies close to the shore of some continent or island. Its 
surface forms an uneven and rather rough platform around the coast, about the level of 
low water, and its outer edge slopes downwards into the sea. Between the fringing reef and 
the land there is sometimes a small channel or lagoon. When the lagoon is wide and deep 
and the reef lies at some distance from the shore and rises from deep water it is called a 
barrier reef. An atoll is a reef in the form of a ring or horseshoe with a lagoon in the center.


Darwin’s theory was that the succession from one coral reef type to another could be 
achieved by the upward growth of coral from a sinking platform, and that there would be a 
progression from a fringing reef, through the barrier reef stage until, with the 
disappearance through subsidence (sinking) of the central island, only a reef-enclosed 
lagoon or atoll would survive. A long time after Darwin put forward this theory, some deep 
boreholes were drilled in the Pacific atolls in the 1950s. The drill holes passed through 
more than a thousand meters of coral before reaching the rock substratum of the ocean 
floor, and indicated that the coral had been growing upward for tens of millions of years as Earth's crust subsided at a rate of between 15 and 51 meters per million years. Darwin s 
theory was therefore proved basically correct. There are some submarine islands called 
guyots and seamounts, in which subsidence associated with sea-floor spreading has been 
too speedy for coral growth to keep up.


Like mangrove swamps, coral reefs are extremely important habitats. Their diversity of 
coral genera is greatest in the warm waters of the Indian Ocean and the western Pacific. ■
Indeed, they have been called the marine version of the tropical rain forest, rivaling their 
terrestrial counterparts in both richness of species and biological productivity. ■They also 
have significance because they provide coastal protection, opportunities for recreation, 
and are potential sources of substances like medicinal drugs. ■At present they are coming 
under a variety of threats, of which two of the most important are dredging and the effects 
of increased siltation brought about by accelerated erosion from neighboring land areas.



Passage two
学科分类:生物

题目
Effects of Plate Tectonics on Species

内容回忆

第一段:引入板块构造对生物有影响。
第二段:引出生物区域这个概念。
第三段:板块构造影响生物区域的数量进而影响生物的多样性。
第四段:大陆和海洋板块的布局影响风,洋流和温度等气候因素,从而影响了生物分布。
第五段:大陆和海洋板块的布局直接影响了生物区域性
第六段:板块运动形成地理障碍导致新的物种形成

参考阅读

Biologist Ernst Mayr defined a species as “an actually or potentially interbreeding 
population that does not interbreed with other such populations when there is 
opportunity to do so.” A key event in the origin of many species is the separation of a 
population with its gene pool (all of the genes in a population at any one time) from other 
populations of the same species, thereby preventing population interbreeding. With its 
gene pool isolated, a separate population can follow its own evolutionary course. In the 
formation of many species, the initial isolation of a population seems to have been a 
geographic barrier. This mode of evolving new species is called allopatric speciation.


Many factors can isolate a population geographically. A mountain range may emerge 
and gradually split a population of organisms that can inhabit only lowland lakes, certain 
fish populations might become isolated in this way. Similarly, a creeping glacier may 
gradually divide a population, or a land bridge such as the Isthmus of Panama may form 
and separate the marine life in the ocean waters on either side.

How formidable must a geographic barrier be to keep populations apart? It depends 
on the ability of the organisms to move across barriers. Birds and coyotes can easily cross 
mountains and rivers. The passage of wind-blown tree pollen is also not hindered by such 
barriers, and the seeds of many plants may be carried back and forth on animals. In 
contrast, small rodents may find a deep canyon or a wide river an effective barrier. For 
example, the Grand Canyon, in the southwestern United States, separate the range of the 
white-tailed antelope squirrel from that of the closely related Harris’ antelope squirrel. 
Smaller, with a shorter tail that is white underneath, the white-tailed antelope squirrel inhabits deserts north of the canyon and west of the Colorado River in southern California. 
Harris' antelope squirrel has a more limited range in deserts south of the Grand Canyon.


Geographic isolation creates opportunities for new species to develop, but it does not 
necessarily lead to new species because speciation occurs only when the gene pool 
undergoes enough changes to establish reproductive barriers between the isolated 
population and its parent population. The likelihood of allopatric speciation increases 
when a population is small as well as isolated, making it more likely than a large population 
to have its gene pool changed substantially. For example, in less than two million years, 
small populations of stray animals and plants from the South American mainland that 
managed to colonize the Galapagos Islands gave rise to all the species that now inhabit the 
islands.
When oceanic islands are far enough apart to permit populations to evolve in 
isolation, but close enough to allow occasional dispersions to occur, they are effectively 
outdoor laboratories of evolution. The Galapagos island chain is one of the world's 
greatest showcases of evolution. Each island was born from underwater volcanoes and was 
gradually covered by organisms derived from strays that rode the ocean currents and 
winds from other islands and continents. Organisms can also be carried to islands by other 
organisms, such as sea birds that travel long distances with seeds clinging to their feathers.


The species on the Galapagos Islands today, most of which occur nowhere else, 
descended from organisms that floated, flew, or were blown over the sea from the South American mainland. For instance, the Galapagos island chain has a total of thirteen species 
of closely related birds called Galapagos finches. These birds have many similarities but 
differ in their feeding habits and their beak type, which is correlated with what they eat. 
Accumulated evidence indicates that all thirteen finch species evolved from a single small 
population of ancestral birds that colonized one of the islands. Completely isolated on the 
island after migrating from the mainland, the founder population may have undergone 
significant changes in its gene pool and become a new species. Later, a few individuals of 
this new species may have been blown by storms to a neighboring island. Isolated on this 
second island, the second founder population could have evolved into a second new 
species, which could later recolonize the island from which its founding population 
emigrated. Today each Galapagos island has multiple species of finches, with as many as 
ten on some islands.


Passage Three

学科分类:艺术

题目
Film Editing

内容回忆

重复 2018.2.4
电影剪辑非常重要,因为可以在导演拍的不好的时候挽救电影。最开始的电影剪辑分为粗剪和细剪,
粗剪是把光线、台词等有缺陷的片段找出来扔掉,细剪就是把剩下的片段衔接起来。以前的剪辑的
时候剪辑师需要把全部的原始影像资料全看一遍,等到出现了电子剪辑技术之后,就可以直接根据
对影像资料的描述精准定位,大大提高了剪辑效率。但缺点也有,就是电子剪辑的话只能在小小的
屏幕上看影像,没法准确得知影像的分辨率,有可能把拍得模糊的片段剪了放映出去了。


参考阅读

Transition to Sound in Film
The shift from silent to sound film at the end of the 1920s marks, so far, the most important 
transformation in motion picture history. Despite all the highly visible technological developments in theatrical and home delivery of the moving image that have occurred 
over the decades since then, no single innovation has come close to being regarded as a 
similar kind of watershed. In nearly every language, however the words are phrased, the 
most basic division in cinema history lies between films that are mute and films that speak.


Yet this most fundamental standard of historical periodization conceals a host of 
paradoxes. Nearly every movie theater, however modest, had a piano or organ to provide 
musical accompaniment to silent pictures. In many instances, spectators in the era before 
recorded sound experienced elaborate aural presentations alongside movies' visual 
images, from the Japanese benshi (narrators) crafting multivoiced dialogue narratives to 
original musical compositions performed by symphony-size orchestras in Europe and the 
United States. In Berlin, for the premiere performance outside the Soviet Union of The 
Battleship Potemkin, film director Sergei Eisenstein worked with Austrian composer 
Edmund Meisel (1874-1930) on a musical score matching sound to image; the Berlin 
screenings with live music helped to bring the film its wide international fame.


Beyond that, the triumph of recorded sound has overshadowed the rich diversity of 
technological and aesthetic experiments with the visual image that were going forward 
simultaneously in the 1920s. New color processes, larger or differently shaped screen sizes, 
multiple-screen projections, even television, were among the developments invented or 
tried out during the period, sometimes with startling success. The high costs of converting 
to sound and the early limitations of sound technology were among the factors that 
suppressed innovations or retarded advancement in these other areas. The introduction of new screen formats was put off for a quarter century, and color, though utilized over the 
next two decades for special productions, also did not become a norm until the 1950s.


Though it may be difficult to imagine from a later perspective, a strain of critical opinion in 
the 1920s predicted that sound film would be a technical novelty that would soon fade 
from sight, just as had many previous attempts, dating well back before the First World 
War, to link images with recorded sound. These critics were making a common 
assumption—that the technological inadequacies of earlier efforts (poor synchronization, 
weak sound amplification, fragile sound recordings) would invariably occur again. To be 
sure, their evaluation of the technical flaws in 1920s sound experiments was not so far off 
the mark, yet they neglected to take into account important new forces in the motion 
picture field that, in a sense, would not take no for an answer.

These forces were the rapidly expanding electronics and telecommunications companies 
that were developing and linking telephone and wireless technologies in the 1920s. In the 
United States, they included such firms as American Telephone and Telegraph, General 
Electric, and Westinghouse. They were interested in all forms of sound technology and all 
potential avenues for commercial exploitation. Their competition and collaboration were 
creating the broadcasting industry in the United States, beginning with the introduction of 
commercial radio programming in the early 1920s. With financial assets considerably 
greater than those in the motion picture industry, and perhaps a wider vision of the 
relationships among entertainment and communications media, they revitalized research 
into recording sound for motion pictures.

In 1929 the United States motion picture industry released more than 300 sound films—a 
rough figure, since a number were silent films with music tracks, or films prepared in dual 
versions, to take account of the many cinemas not yet wired for sound. At the production 
level, in the United States the conversion was virtually complete by 1930. In Europe it 
took a little longer, mainly because there were more small producers for whom the costs of 
sound were prohibitive, and in other parts of the world problems with rights or access to 
equipment delayed the shift to sound production for a few more years (though cinemas in 
major cities may have been wired in order to play foreign sound films). The triumph of 
sound cinema was swift, complete, and enormously popular.


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